The very high melting point, excellent strength, low coefficient of thermal expansion, and good thermal conductivity make pure molybdenum suitable for most high-temperature applications.
TZM stands for titanium-zirconium-molybdenum, a molybdenum alloy containing 0.5% titanium, 0.08% zirconium, 0.02% carbon, and the rest molybdenum. Like pure molybdenum, Molybdenum TZM Alloy can be produced by powder metallurgy or arc anodization.
TZM is about 25% more expensive than pure molybdenum, but in some applications the extra cost can be offset by higher heat resistance; TZM has a higher recrystallization temperature than pure molybdenum, reducing the potential for embrittlement at high temperatures. At elevated temperatures, TZM has improved strength, hardness, creep resistance, and ductility and does not weaken or soften.
The recommended operating temperature for THM is 700-1400°C. However, like pure molybdenum, TZM begins to oxidize at 400°C and oxidizes rapidly in oxidizing atmospheres above 500°C. TZM has the same strength as pure molybdenum at room temperature, but at service temperatures above the recrystallization temperature of pure molybdenum (900-1100°C), TZM becomes harder. above 1300°C. Under high temperature stress, TZM is twice as strong as pure molybdenum.
In the vacuum furnace industry, TZM is the preferred material for hearth supports and horizontal supports because of its higher strength and recrystallization temperature than pure molybdenum.
In the medical diagnostics industry, TZM is used as a material for the rotating anodes of X-ray tubes; despite the high temperatures of X-ray tubes and the ultra-high speed rotation of X-ray anodes, TZM is less prone to delamination, cracking, and failure than pure molybdenum under these extreme conditions.
In general, TZM is suitable for applications where high mechanical stresses are applied at temperatures above 900°C or where recrystallization or embrittlement of pure molybdenum due to temperature changes or handling is a problem.
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